Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review was founded in the Spring of 2009 by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta at Chapman University. The mission of Voces Novae is to provide undergraduate students a forum to contribute original research to the body of historical knowledge. We seek to bring students and teachers of history together in an intellectual dialogue with the goal of promoting and assisting historical research and analysis. Through the introduction of new and diverse voices in historical research, Voces Novae supports the mission of Chapman University to foster inquiring, ethical and productive lives as global citizens.
This issue marks the sixth anniversary of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, the award-winning, student-run e-journal published by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta. Each year our chapter's members have contributed not only their scholarly pursuits, but also their time and dedication so that we may continue to produce and publish research of the highest academic standards. For this particular issue, we had an outstanding team of editors ranging from sophomores to seniors who worked diligently to help ensure that the papers published were prime examples of the top quality work produced by the Chapman University History Department.
The publication of this extraordinary issue would not have been possible without the large amount of support provided by Chapman University's outstanding faculty. We would first like to thank Dr. Mary Litch and Dr. Jana Remy, both of whom have been incredibly patient in guiding us through the journey of publishing this e-journal over the last few years. Their support has been invaluable in making this e-journal a continued success. In addition, we must thank the entire faculty of the History Department, who have served as mentors and have always encouraged students to pursue their passions and produce to the best of their ability. Dr. Jennifer D. Keene, Dr. Lee Estes, Dr. Robert Slayton, Dr. Alexander Bay, Dr. William F. Cumiford, Professor Brenda Farrington, Dr. Carolyn Vieira-Martinez, Dr. Marilyn J. Harran, Professor Mike Fraga, Dr. Vanessa Gunther, Dr. Elizabeth Eastman, Dr. Tom Reins, Professor William Maher, Dr. Shira Klein, and Professor Jeffrey Koerber have inspired us to develop our skills as budding historians, writers, scholars, and global citizens.
The authors selected for this issue have gone beyond the scope of scholarly research previously conducted at Chapman University, traveling across the United States to Washington D.C. and even visiting countries such as England and Russia; working long hours in prestigious archives such the Gallaudet University Library Deaf Collections and Archives, the Churchill Archives, and the British National Archives; conducting field research in an abandoned California gold mine, and ultimately creating a series of papers that reflect not only their own extreme diligence, but also the impressive conduction of primary research for which Chapman students are known. We are thankful to those who have contributed to this publication, Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, thus adding to the ever-growing body of historical knowledge.
Fernando Amador II, Taylor Dipoto, Emily Neis, David Wells